As bacteria grow resistant to conventional antibiotics, alternatives are being investigated, including antibodies, probiotics, bacteriophages, and antimicrobial peptides currently undergoing clinical trials. The specificity of antibodies, and the inability of bacteria to develop resistance against them, make antibodies attractive, albeit expensive, alternative therapeutic agents. Bacteriophages have been used for therapy in some parts of the world. Antimicrobial peptides have long been considered as potential replacements for antibiotics but with limited success. Synthetic peptides and synthetic Antibiotic membrane-active agents might herald a shift.